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Title from title screen (viewed on 22/07/2019). Includes bibliographical references. This report uses insights from cognitive science to explore the most effective ways of supporting students to develop key capabilities or 21st century skills such as critical and creative thinking. The publication outlines research indicating that developing capabilities such as critical thinking is dependent on having content knowledge - the ability to think critically depends on content knowledge and practice. It looks at the most effective way of supporting students to develop these capabilities from the perspective of cognitive science, and reiterates the need for capabilities to be taught through subject or learning area, and intertwined with content knowledge. This accords with the way the human brain learns, is less likely to overload working memory, and more likely to promote long-term learning. From this perspective, capabilities are best developed in the context of a knowledge-rich curriculum, where learning is carefully sequenced. This will enable learners to develop an increasingly sophisticated capacity to understand and apply knowledge, as they journey from novice to expert. The report also considers how the capabilities can be assessed. [Introduction, ed] This report uses insights from cognitive science to explore the most effective ways of supporting students to develop key capabilities or 21st century skills such as critical and creative thinking. The publication outlines research indicating that developing capabilities such as critical thinking is dependent on having content knowledge - the ability to think critically depends on content knowledge and practice. It looks at the most effective way of supporting students to develop these capabilities from the perspective of cognitive science, and reiterates the need for capabilities to be taught through subject or learning area, and intertwined with content knowledge. This accords with the way the human brain learns, is less likely to overload working memory, and more likely to promote long-term learning. From this perspective, capabilities are best developed in the context of a knowledge-rich curriculum, where learning is carefully sequenced. This will enable learners to develop an increasingly sophisticated capacity to understand and apply knowledge, as they journey from novice to expert. The report also considers how the capabilities can be assessed. [Introduction, ed]